HISTORICKÝ ČASOPIS

2/2022

VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A STREDNEJ EURÓPY
VEDECKÝ ČASOPIS O DEJINÁCH SLOVENSKA A STREDNEJ EURÓPY

VYDÁVA HISTORICKÝ ÚSTAV SLOVENSKEJ AKADÉMIE VIED, V. V. I.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

ISSN 0018-2575 (print)

ISSN 2585-9099 (online)

EV 3084/09

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Web of Science Core Collection: Arts & Humanities Citation Index

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CEEOL

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EBSCO Historical Abstracts

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AKTUÁLNE ČÍSLO | REDAKCIA | POKYNY PRE AUTOROV | ARCHÍV | PREDPLATNÉ | O ČASOPISE | PUBLIKAČNÁ ETIKA | VÝZVY

Historický časopis (ročník 69), 2021, č. 4

O B S A H

Ú v o d

Hlavinka, Ján: Monotematické číslo na tému Prenasledovanie Židov na Slovensku v kontexte holokaustu v strednej Európe ... 577

Š t ú d i e

Zavacká, Katarína: Viera alebo rasa. Dilemy tvorby prvých protižidovských noriem na Slovensku ... 579
Kubátová, Hana: Topológie holokaustu na východoslovenskom vidieku ... 601
Nešťáková, Denisa: Žena – muž– tábor: K otázke vplyvu rodu na prežívanie holokaustu ... 627
Tokárová, Zuzana: Social Status of the Interwar Jewish Political Elite in Prešov and Its Influence on Surviving the Holocaust ... 655
Schvarc, Michal – Hlavinka, Ján: Deportácie Židov zo Spiša v septembri 1944. K začiatkom a chronológii druhej vlny deportácií Židov zo Slovenska ... 677

A r c h í v

Nižňanský, Eduard – Psicová, Katarína: Nemecký poradca Erich Gebert a jeho snahy o ovplyvnenie priebehu arizácií na Slovensku ... 693
Hlavinka, Ján – Schvarc, Michal: Akcia Reinhardt a deportácie slovenských Židov do Lublinskej oblasti v dokumentoch ... 729

M a t e r i á l y

Ďurková, Mária: Historiografia v Historickom ústave SAV v rokoch 2019 – 2020 ... 755

R e c e n z i e

Hájková, Anna: The Last Ghetto: An Everyday History of Theresienstadt (Denisa Nešťáková) ... 777

N e k r o l ó g

Zomrel Ákoš Paulinyi (1929 – 2021) (Roman Holec) ... 780


C O N T E N T S

I n t r o d u c t i o n

Hlavinka, Ján: One-theme issue on the theme The Persecution of the Jews in Slovakia in the Context of the Holocaust in Central Europe ... 577

A r t i c l e s

Zavacká, Katarína: Faith or race. The dilemma of writing the first anti-Jewish legislation in Slovakia ... 579
Kubátová, Hana: Topologies of the Holocaust in the East Slovak Countryside ... 601
Nešťáková, Denisa: Woman – Man – Camp.On the question of the influence of gender on surviving the Holocaust ... 627
Tokárová, Zuzana: Social Status of the Interwar Jewish Political Elite in Prešov and Its Influence on Surviving the Holocaust ... 655
Schvarc, Michal – Hlavinka, Ján: The Deportation of Jews from Spiš in September 1944. On the Beginning and Chronology of the Second Wave of Deportation of Jews from Slovakia ... 677

A r c h i v e s

Nižňanský, Eduard – Psicová, Katarína: Advisor Erich Gebert and his efforts to influence the course of Aryanization in Slovakia ... 693
Hlavinka, Ján – Schvarc, Michal: Operation Reinhardt and the Deportation of Slovak Jews to the Lublin District Through Documents ... 729

M a t e r i a l s

Ďurková, Mária: Historiography at the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2019–2020 ... 755

R E V I E W – A N N O T A T I O N S – B I B L I O G R A P H Y – C H R O N I C L E


I N H A L T

E i n l e i t u n g

Hlavinka, Ján: Monotematic Nummer über Die Verfolgung der Juden in der Slowakei im Kontext der Holocausts im Mitteleuropa ... 577

S t u d i e n

Zavacká, Katarína: Glaube oder Rasse. Dilemmata bei der Schaffung der ersten antijüdischen Normen in der Slowakei ... 579
Kubátová, Hana: Die Topologie des Holocausts in der ostslowakischen Landschaft ... 601
Nešťáková, Denisa: Frau – Mann – Lager: Die Frage nach dem Einfluss des Geschlechts auf die Holocaust-Erfahrung ... 627
Tokárová, Zuzana: Sozialer Status der jüdischen politischen Elite der Zwischenkriegs-zeit in Prešov und ihr Einfluss auf das Überleben des Holocaust ... 655
Schvarc, Michal – Hlavinka, Ján: Die Deportierung der Juden aus der Zips im September 1944. Zu Beginn und Chronologie der zweiten Welle der Judendeportierung aus der Slowakei ... 677

A r c h i v

Nižňanský, Eduard – Psicová, Katarína: Berater Erich Gebert und seine Bemühungen, den Verlauf der Arisierung in der Slowakie zu beienflussen ... 693
Hlavinka, Ján – Schvarc, Michal: Aktion Reinhardt und die Deportierung slowakischer Juden ins Distrikt Lublin in Dokumenten ... 729

M a t e r i a l i e n

Ďurková, Mária: Historiographie im Historischen Institut SAV (Slowakische Akademie der Wissenschaften) in den Jahren 2019–2020 ... 755

K R I T I K – G L O S S E N – B I B L I O G R A P H I E – C H R O N I K


ZAVACKÁ, Katarína. Faith or race. The dilemma of writing the first anti-Jewish legislation in Slovakia.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 579–599, Bratislava.

The assumption that legislation should discriminate against citizens regarded as “Jews” was a basic feature of the Ľudák idea of state law in the period of the disintegration of Czechoslovak parliamentary democracy after the Munich Agreement. However, there were varying views on the question of definition of who would be covered by this legislation. From autumn 1939, internal debates in Slovakia’s autonomous political institutions, in the Ľudák controlled media and until 14 March 1939 in contacts with the central Czecho-Slovak ministries were carried on with the aim of accelerating the practical implementation of such legislation.
In the official anti-Semitic discourse and subsequently also in the process of preparing and adopting anti-Jewish legislation, the influence of the traditional religious anti-Semitism supported by economic and cultural arguments overlapped with the newer and gradually strengthening racist argumentation derived from the Nazi Third Reich. The study is directed towards the origins of the Ľudák anti-Semitic legislation, and the argumentational strategy of its proposers, by which they introduced racist principles, and endeavoured to merge them with the proclaimed Christian basis of the Ľudák regime.

Key words: Law. Legislation. Slovak State. Anti-Semitism. Race.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.1

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KUBÁTOVÁ, Hana. Topologies of the Holocaust in the East Slovak Countryside.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 601–625, Bratislava.

Placing my investigation into the historically multi-ethnic and multi-religious small towns and villages of the former Šariš-Zemplín County in eastern Slovakia during the Second World War, I examine ideas and policies associated with civilizing the countryside, as voiced and introduced by Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party. Building on what is now a growing scholarship on the topographies and topologies of the Holocaust, I reconstruct here how plans and programs to raise living standards in the east of the country, including a policy entitled “caring for the Slovak village,” hastened the further exclusion of local Jews from what had been a joint social space and physical place. Doing so, I manifest how the “beautifying” of Slovak villages included “cleansing” these from the Jews, and how the process, while orchestrated from above, had its own local dynamics. More generally, my work makes a case for an integrated social history of the Holocaust in eastern Slovakia, one that shows how the social and economic “uplifting” was intertwined with the robbing and murdering of local Jews.

Keywords: Topologies. Topographies. The Holocaust. Village. Civilization.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.2

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NEŠŤÁKOVÁ, Denisa. Woman – Man – Camp.On the question of the influence of gender on surviving the Holocaust.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 627–654, Bratislava.

In spite of the substantial results of research on the Holocaust in Slovakia in recent decades, gender analysis has not been done, and is still not one of the regular instruments for research on the history of the Holocaust in the Slovak academic community. The aim of the present study is to present the possibilities for the use of gender as an analytical category in research on the Holocaust. The study is composed of two main parts: theoretical and practical. The first part is a review of the most important aspects of the Holocaust with an emphasis on gender analysis. In the second part, the theory is applied to a case study of the experiences of women and men in the Sereď Camp. The study attempts to point out the possibilities for enriching research on the Holocaust and other historical themes by using gender analysis.

Key words: Slovak State. Holocaust. Sereď Camp. Gender analysis. Gender studies.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.3

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TOKÁROVÁ, Zuzana. Social Status of the Interwar Jewish Political Elite in Prešov and Its Influence on Surviving the Holocaust.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 655–676, Bratislava.

The paper analyses the social status of the Jewish members of the interwar municipal political elite during the Holocaust in the example of the town of Prešov. They lost their democratically elected mandate due to the dissolution of Jewish parties and opposition parties in Slovakia after Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party came to power in October 1938. The main attention is focused on the (declining) vertical social mobility of members of the former elite in order to find out whether their previous political engagement and possible social ties associated with it influenced their social status at the time of the systematic implementation of anti-Jewish policy or helped them to survive during the Holocaust. The paper intends to capture a common model of behaviour, as well as individual actions and apply the acquired knowledge to the whole group of Jewish municipal political elites in the period under review.

Keywords: Holocaust. Jews. Municipal Political Elite. Social Status. Social Mobility. Slovak State. Prešov.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.4

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SCHVARC, Michal – HLAVINKA, Ján. The Deportation of Jews from Spiš in September 1944. On the Beginning and Chronology of the Second Wave of Deportation of Jews from Slovakia.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 677–692, Bratislava.

On 31 August 1944, when not particularly large Wehrmacht units occupied Kežmarok and disarmed the Slovak forces there, it was clear that northern Spiš would not succeed in joining the Slovak National Uprising. Instead, the German units began to establish an occupation regime, which enabled the arrival of quickly formed Security Police and Security Service units during the night from 31 August to 1 September 1944. The present of the Einsatzkommando “Ostslowakei”, later renamed zbV-Kommando 27, meant an acute threat to the lives of the group most proscribed by the National Socialists: the Jews. In close cooperation with the radicals from the ranks of the local Germans, they immediately launched a wave of arrests of the remnants of the Jewish community of Kežmarok and its surroundings, their imprisonment and deportation to the Płaszów concentration camp, where the camp personnel killed most of the internees immediately after their arrive. Analysis of these events indicates that the chronology of the second wave of deportation of Jews from Slovakia as researched and accepted up to now, is not entirely accurate. There were already deportations from the territory of Slovakia during the first 20 days of September 1944. In the study, we aim not only to describe this process, but also to map the further fate of the interned and deported persons. We also direct attention to the people involved in the persecution, namely the members of the Einsatzkommando “Ostslowakei” and the German home guard: “Heimatschutz”. We also devote attention to the question of criminal proceedings concerning these crimes, both in post-war Czechoslovakia and in the German Federal Republic.

Key words: Kežmarok. Deportations. Sicherheitspolizei. Ethnic Germans. Płaszów.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.5

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NIŽŇANSKÝ, Eduard – PSICOVÁ, Katarína. Advisor Erich Gebert and his efforts to influence the course of Aryanization in Slovakia.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 693–728, Bratislava.

In this study, we deal with the unknown efforts of the Nazi adviser to the Ministry of Economy Erich Gebert to influence the process of Aryanization in Slovakia. These efforts are also interesting because in 1940 a special office was created – the Central Economic Office, which was also to deal with the issue of Aryanization. A counsellor for the Jewish question – Dieter Wisliceny – also worked in Slovakia. Gebert‘s efforts in 1941–1943 to influence the Aryanization process were unsuccessful. These failures also show the possibilities of Slovak ministers, or administration to negotiate issues with Nazi Germany in some way and not to simply submit.

Key words: Anti-Semitism. Aryanization. Advisor. Nazi-Germany. Slovak state.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.6

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HLAVINKA, Ján – SCHVARC, Michal. Operation Reinhardt and the Deportation of Slovak Jews to the Lublin District Through Documents.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 729–754, Bratislava.

In 1942, the regime of Hlinka's Slovak People's Party deported more than 57,000 Jews to territory under the control of the Third Reich. Of these, 40,000 Jews were deported to the General Government´s Lublin District, where Operation Reinhardt, one of the biggest extermination operations of the Holocaust, was just beginning. Its central elements were Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka death camps. Therefore, the vast majority of Jews deported from Slovakia in 1942 fell victim to extermination Operation Reinhardt. The article presents a set of documents that characterize deportations of Slovak Jews to the Lublin District, as well as Operation Reinhardt itself.

Keywords: Holocaust. Deportations. Operation Reinhardt. Slovak state. Jews. Death camps.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.7

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ĎURKOVÁ, Mária. Historiography at the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2019–2020.

Historický časopis, 2021, 69, 4, pp. 755–775, Bratislava.

The publication activity of researchers from the Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in 2019–2020 was successful and rich. A wide range of works on almost all chronological periods of Slovak history and some selected problems from general history continued the positive achievements of Slovak historiography. The most important results came from academic projects supported by grant agencies: the Agency for Research and Development and the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of Slovakia VEGA. More than 50 books, including individual and collective monographs, volumes of papers from academic conferences and popularizing works, were published by leading domestic and international publishers such as VEDA, vydavateľstvo SAV, Nakladatelství Lidové noviny Praha, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht of Munich, Peter Lang Verlag of Frankfurt am Main, ibidem Verlag of Stuttgart, Ottovo nakladatelství of Prague, Ráció Kiadó of Budapest, and Wochenschau Verlag of Frankfurt am Main. From the point of view of content, various themes were represented in harmony with recent trends in Slovak and European historiography. Especially political, economic, cultural and social history were preferred, followed by the history of personalities, everyday life, the armed forces and churches, medicine and education. In conclusion, it is possible to state that the researchers of the Institute of History made significant contributions to Slovak and European historiography. They have continued to set the basic direction for the development of historiography in Slovakia.

Key words: Historiography. Institute of History of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Slovakia. Academic research. Scientific grant supported projects.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31577/histcaso.2021.69.4.8

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